The team hopes the Food and Drug Administration will use their findings to implement regulatory laws on e-cigarette products. Dr Phandthong concludes: “Our findings could also help improve the design of clinical trials involving the use of tobacco products and SARS-CoV-2 infection.

“In the meantime, it is worth bearing in mind that the scientific literature has shown that a vaper who contracted SARS-CoV-2 has more complications during the recovery period and is more likely to develop long COVID-19, which can be serious and last many months post-infection.

“We hope our findings encourage vapers to stop vaping and discourage non-users from starting to vape.”